At one time, there were relatively few concerns about descriptive representation in Congress. One of the main reasons for this is that until much of the twentieth century, white men of European descent made up an overwhelming majority of the voting population. African Americans were regularly denied the opportunity to participate in democracy, and Hispanics and other minority groups were relatively insignificant in number and excluded from states. While women in many Western states could vote, not all women could exercise their right to vote nationwide until the Nineteenth Amendment was passed in 1920, and it wasn`t until the 1990s that they began to represent more than 5 percent of both chambers. On the other hand, a representative who understands his role as that of a syndic believes that the electors entrust him with the power to make decisions on behalf of the electors with discernment. In the words of the eighteenth-century British philosopher Edmund Burke, who defended the model of fiduciary representation: “Parliament is not a congress of ambassadors of different and hostile interests. rather, it is a consultative assembly of a nation, with an interest, that of the whole.  In the modern environment, directors` representatives will pay attention to party consensus, party leadership, powerful interests, members` personal opinions, and national trends to better identify the electoral decisions they should make. In some cases, representation seems to have very little to do with the substantive issues that congressional representatives tend to discuss. Instead, for some, appropriate representation is rooted in the racial, ethnic, socio-economic, gender and sexual identity of the representatives themselves.
This form of representation is called descriptive representation. Naturally, few, if any, representatives strictly adhere to one model or another. Instead, most try to balance the important principles embedded in each of them. Political scientists call this the political model of representation. In this document, members of Congress act either as administrators or as delegates, based on rational political calculations about who is best served, the constituency or the nation. Much progress on women`s rights has been the result of women`s increased engagement in politics and representation in government halls, especially since the founding of the National Women`s Organization in 1966 and the National Women`s Political Caucus (NWPC) in 1971. The NWPC was founded by Bella Abzug, Gloria Steinem, Shirley Chisholm and other prominent feminists to promote women`s participation in political parties, elect women to power, and raise funds for their campaigns. For example, Patsy Mink (D-HI), the first Asian-American woman to be elected to Congress, was the co-author of the Education Amendments Act of 1972, whose Title IX prohibits gender discrimination in education. Mink has been interested in fighting discrimination in education since she was young, when she spoke out against racial segregation in campus housing as a student at the University of Nebraska. She went to law school after being denied admission to medical school because of her gender.
Like Mink, many other women aspired and won political positions, many with the help of the NWPC. Today, EMILY`s List, a PAC founded in 1985 to elect pro-choice Democratic women, plays an important role in raising funds for female candidates. In the 2012 general election, 80% of the candidates supported by EMILY`s list won one seat.  Politico: It`s a combination of the first two. In general, the elected representative will follow the model of the syndic until his constituents push him on certain issues concerning the model of the delegates. Some representatives follow the model of delegate representation and act according to the expressed wishes of their constituents, while others take a fiduciary approach and act according to what they believe to be in the best interests of their constituents. However, most representatives combine the two approaches and apply them in each case depending on the political circumstances. The standard method by which MEPs showed their loyalty to their constituents, namely “bringing the bacon home” from favourable budget allocations, has been interpreted as a form of corruption or pork barrel politics. Mirror representation is the idea that an elected body of representatives should reflect the different groups in society in proportions similar to those that exist in the general population.
Examples from different groups may be people of different social, religious or ethnic backgrounds. The concept of collective representation describes the relationship between Congress and the United States as a whole. That is, it is examined whether the institution itself represents the American people, not just whether a particular member of Congress represents his district. As might be expected, it is much more difficult for Congress to maintain some degree of collective representation than for individual members of Congress to represent their own constituents. Not only is Congress a mixture of different ideologies, interests, and political affiliations, but the collective electorate of the United States also has an even higher degree of diversity. Nor is it a solution to try to reconcile the diversity of opinions and interests in the United States with those of Congress. In fact, such an attempt would likely make it more difficult for Congress to maintain collective representation. Its rules and procedures require Congress to use flexibility, negotiations, and concessions. But it is this flexibility and concessions that many today interpret as corruption that tends to cause Congress` high rejection ratings. The tension between local and national politics described in the previous section is essentially a struggle between interpretations of representation. Representation is a complex concept. This may mean paying close attention to voters` concerns, understanding that representatives must act as they see fit, based on what they think is best for the constituency, or relying on the particular ethnic, racial or gender diversity of those in power.
In this section, we will explore three different models of representation and the concept of descriptive representation. We will look at how members of Congress navigate the difficult terrain of representation while serving, and all the many predictable and unpredictable consequences of the decisions they make. List of topics of social and political philosophy — * And the theory of conservatism * A conflict of visions * A few words about non-interference * A justification of the rights of persons * Responsibility * Theory of action * Real idealism * Adam Müller * Adamites * Capacity to act (philosophy) * Tightening of the class. . Wikipedia By definition and title, senators and members of the House of Representatives are members of parliament. This means that they should come from the local population throughout the country so that they can speak on behalf of these local people, their constituents and make decisions while serving in their respective legislative homes. That is, representation refers to an elected leader who pays attention to his or her constituents in the performance of his or her duties.  One of the events that triggered the downward trend in approval ratings was the debate that divided Congress over national deficits.
A deficit is what happens when Congress spends more than it has at its disposal. It then makes additional deficit spending by increasing public debt. Many modern economists argue that the country is expected to run deficits in times of economic decline, as additional public spending has a stimulating effect that can help get a sluggish economy back on track. Despite this advantage, voters rarely appreciate deficits. They see Congress wasting at a time when they are cutting costs themselves to make ends meet. This model was formulated by Edmund Burke (1729-1797), a British philosopher, who also created the fiduciary model of representation. Traditionally, representatives have seen their role as that of a delegate, a trustee, or someone trying to balance the two. A representative who considers himself a delegate believes that he has the power to implement only the wishes of the voters. .